The city is found at the picturesque junction of foothills of the mountain range geological formation and therefore the Ganges plains. Consequently, it homes a population of 1,054,600 inhabitants (2001). And is one every of the richest cities of the state.
About the city
Chandigarh, the dream town of India’s initial Prime Minister, Sh. Jawahar Lal Nehru was planned by the known French creator Le Corbusier. Picturesquely settled at the foothills of Shivaliks, it’s called one in every of the simplest experiments in urban coming up with and trendy design within the twentieth century in the Asian nation. Therefore Chandigarh became symbolic of the new freedom Indian. the inspiration stone of the town was set in 1952. The city is documented for its architecture and style by architects like Le Corbusier Pierre Jeanerette, Jane Drew, and Maxwell Fry.
Site Selection for Planning of Chandigarh
The present site was selected in 1948 taking under consideration various attributes such as:
- central location within the state
- proximity to the capital
- availability of sufficient water supply
- fertile of soil
- the gradient of land for natural drainage
- beautiful site with the panorama of blue hills as a backdrop
- moderate climate.
- The site was the sub mountainous space of the Ambala district about one hundred fifty miles north of New Delhi.
- The area was a flat, light-sloping plain of agricultural land consisting of fifty-nine villages.
Planner: Albert Mayer: The Master Plan By: Mathew Nowicki
- And, fan formed a plan
- Also, spreads gently to fill the location between the 2 stream beds
- A semicircular network of main roads surrounds the residential blocks
- two axial routes finite by linear parks connected the zones.
- the pattern avoids the geometric grid in favor of a loosely semicircular system
Novicki was tragically killed in an associate air accident and Mayer determined to discontinue. Thereafter, the work was assigned to a team of architects lead by Charles Eduard Jeanneret higher called Le Corbusier in 1951. As a result, he was aided by 3 senior architects, Maxwell Fry, his married woman Jane B Drew and Corbusier’s first cousin, Pierre Jeanneret.
Basic Planning Concepts of Planning of Chandigarh
- So the town arrange was planning as a post-war ‘garden city’ whereby vertical and high-rise buildings were dominating out, keeping seeable the living habits of the folks.
- Le modular system
- Analogous to the human body
- firstly, head: capital (place of power)
- in addition heart: the city center
- stomach: the commercial area
- arms: university and industrial zone
- lungs: leisure valley, open spaces
- moreover arteries: a network of roads
The master plan ready by Le Corbusier was generally kind of like the one ready by the team of planners led by Albert Francis Charles Augustus Emmanuel Mayer and Mathew Nowicki accept that form of the town plan was changing from one with a semicircular road network to a rectangular shape with a gridiron pattern for the fast traffic roads, besides reducing its space for the reason of economy.
Also Read: Zaha Hadid & her Architecture philosophies
Le Corbusier Planning Strategies
- So Planned with the target on urban design, architectural aesthetics,
- And the preservation of the natural environment, conservation of buildings and open spaces, hierarchical road network
- Also divided the human functions into circulation, living, working, care body and spirit with strict zoning
- planning was against the traditional Indian cities
- Replaced the native Indian city arrange into superblocks
An integrated system of seven road types as follows:
- firstly, V1: fast roads connecting Chandigarh To other towns
- V2: arterial roads
- V3:fast vehicular roads
- V4: meandering shopping streets
- V5 : sector circulation roads
- V6: access roads to houses
- moreover, V7: footpaths and cycle tracks
Buses will ply only on V1, V2, V3, and V4 roads
- Pathways for cyclists
- Roads intersected at right angles forming a grid
- Hierarchy of movement
- Residential areas segregated from the traffic
‘The functions of living occupy the primary place. Therefore Le Corbusier planned that every dwelling should have three elements of sun, space, and greenery. The housing in the city can be sub-divided into two parts-
- Government housing
- private housing.
- So the primary module of the town‘s style could be a sector, neighborhood unit of size 800mtrs×1200mtrs
- every sector could be an autonomous unit having retailers, school, health centers, and places of recreations and worship
- The population of a sector varies between 3000and 2000 relying upon the sizes of plots and therefore the topography of the realm
- Convenient walking distance for social services like colleges and looking centers
- Also, the basic coming up with of the town could be a sector
- to accommodate 3,000 to 25,000 persons
- thirty sectors in Chandigarh
- twenty-four square measure residential
- The sectors enclosed by high-speed roads
- Bus stops each 400m
- the main principle of the world is that ne’er a door can open on the encompassing of quick transport road
- the dimensions of the world rely on the idea of no pedestrian ought to walk for quite 10min.
Read Also: Pioneer of Modern Architecture: Corbusier
Principles of Urban Design
- So major roads should not pass through a residential neighborhood.
- Internal road patterns ought to encourage quiet, safe, low-volume traffic movement.
- So the orderly arrangement of facilities which might be shared commonly by the residents
- A unit having retailers, schools, health centers, and places of recreation and worships.
- These sectors vary depending upon the dimensions and therefore the topography of the area.
Main work centers ,For example
- firstly, the capitol complex in the northeast
- the educational institutes in the north-west
- the city center in the heart
- the industrial area in the southeast
The Capitol Complex
- Firstly, supported the planning of a great cross axis.
- the unreal hills within the front of the secretariat haven’t been created and set enter accordance with lupus erythematosus Corbusier conceptions.
- Designed because the nice pedestrian plaza with motor traffic separated into sunken trenches resulting in parking areas.
- And the following are spaces of the Capitol complex.
- firstly the Parliament
- Governor’s palace
- High court
- Truncated pyramid
- Monument for the victims
Also Read: Pondicherry – A city in the vintage
Hierarchy Of Green Spaces at Planning of Chandigarh
Moreover, a Hierarchy of inexperienced areas may be determined in each layout starting from Public inexperienced at town Level to Semi-Private to non-public Green Areas.
The city landscape arrangement of the primary phases showing the leisure depression and also swaths of inexperienced areas that also act as a control. An inexperienced sprawling area extending northeast to southwest on a seasonal watercourse gradient and was planning by Le Corbusier because of the “lungs” of the town. As a result, this depression homes series of fitness trails, amphitheater, and areas for open exhibition.
Leisure Valley at Planning of Chandigarh
An inexperienced sprawling area extending north-east to the southwest on a seasonal river gradient. planned by Le Corbusier because of the lungs of the town. homes the series of fitness trails, amphitheater, and areas for open exhibition. garden designed in 1957 by Nek Chand.
Climatic Considerations of Planning of Chandigarh
Sun path throughout varied seasons was studied. As a result, the rise of the sun breaks chajjas. Later honeycomb brick jalis were introducing. Therefore building orientations were creating sun-friendly. Also, facades designed to stay sun enter summer and admit it in winters. In addition compactness through the shut spacing of buildings called terrace housing. lightweight and air are drawing through the front and rear of the buildings. Buildings have larger depth and slender frontage.
Moreover, positives of Planning of Chandigarh
- Firstly, the first modern architecture of Indian city planning
- each sector satisfies the necessities of human needs
- Separate roads for pedestrian, bicycle, and heavy vehicles
- Open spaces in front shopping centers
- Buildings designed as triple storied shop cum flats
- Also, shop on ground floor
- Residence on the upper floor
- Continuous verandah in front of the shop
- Shop protected from rain and sun
- As a covered walkway for the customers
In addition negatives of Planning of Chandigarh
- Firstly roads being similar to each other create confusion
- Brutal concrete gives a rough look
- in addition, a city not planned for lower-income people